How were absentees recorded on the Protestation Returns?

What were protestation returns?

The Protestation Returns of 1641–1642 are lists of English males over the age of 18 who took, or did not take, an oath of allegiance “to live and die for the true Protestant religion, the liberties and rights of subjects and the privilege of Parliaments.” These lists were usually compiled by parish, or township, within …

What was the protestation oath 1641?

The Protestation of 1641 was an attempt to avert the English Civil War. In July 1641 Parliament passed a bill on 3 May requiring those over the age of 18 to sign the Protestation, an oath of allegiance to King Charles I and the Church of England, as a way to reduce the tensions across the realm.

What happened in the year 1641?

October 23 – Irish Rebellion of 1641 breaks out: Irish Catholic gentry, chiefly in Ulster, revolt against the English administration and Scottish settlers in Ireland. October 24 – The Irish rebel Sir Felim O’Neill of Kinard issues the Proclamation of Dungannon.

What was the great remonstrance?

The Grand Remonstrance was a list of grievances presented to King Charles I of England by the English Parliament on 1 December 1641, but passed by the House of Commons on 22 November 1641, during the Long Parliament. It was one of the chief events which was to precipitate the English Civil War.

What caused the House of Commons protests and Charles I dismiss parliament?

The country divides, 1640-41

Charles called Parliament in April 1640 and then dismissed it again because MPs refused to give him what he wanted.

How many times did Charles dissolve parliament?

Charles dissolved parliament three times between 1625 and 1629. In 1629, he dismissed parliament and resolved to rule alone. This forced him to raise revenue by non-parliamentary means which made him increasingly unpopular.

Who was the first black King of England?

Edward was made Duke of Cornwall, the first English dukedom, in 1337. He was guardian of the kingdom in his father’s absence in 1338, 1340, and 1342.

Edward the Black Prince
Issue more… Edward of Angoulême Richard II of England
House Plantagenet
Father Edward III, King of England
Mother Philippa of Hainault

Why did Charles I have to recall Parliament?

After 11 years of attempting Personal Rule between 1629 and 1640, Charles recalled Parliament in 1640 on the advice of Lord Wentworth, recently created Earl of Strafford, primarily to obtain money to finance his military struggle with Scotland in the Bishops’ Wars.

Why did Parliament not like the Archbishop Laud?

Defenders of Parliament and Puritan leaders detested the Laudian reforms and blamed Laud for manipulating Charles and sought to seek revenge. This lead to Laud’s arrest and eventual trial in 1644.

Who dismissed Parliament for 11 years?

Charles I

Charles I was furious and dissolved the Parliament that very same day. He did not call another one for 11 years, making clear his distaste for dealing with Parliament and his belief that the royal prerogative allowed him to rule and to raise money without it.

What was the 11 year tyranny?

The Personal Rule (also known as the Eleven Years’ Tyranny) was the period from 1629 to 1640, when King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland ruled without recourse to Parliament. The King claimed that he was entitled to do this under the Royal Prerogative.

Was Oliver Cromwell an absolute monarch?

Cromwell ruled England without a monarch until his death in 1658. The English Bill of Rights limited the power of the English monarchy.

Did king Charles wanted new taxes to crush rebellion in Scotland?

Charles I managed to rule his kingdom without calling Parliament from 1629- 40. However, by 1640 he was desperate for money. He was facing a rebellion in Scotland and needed to pay more soldiers to fight the rebels. He was forced to call Parliament to try and get MPs to agree to new taxes to raise the money.

Who ruled England without calling Parliament?

Charles I

The period from March 1629 to April 1640 later became known as the Personal Rule because Charles I did not summon Parliament during this time.

Who was the first king to be executed?

Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
Charles I of England.

Charles I
Died 30 January 1649 (aged 48) Whitehall, London, England
Cause of death Execution
Burial 9 February 1649 St George’s Chapel, Windsor Castle, England

Who was the first king of England?


The first king of all of England was Athelstan (895-939 AD) of the House of Wessex, grandson of Alfred the Great and 30th great-granduncle to Queen Elizabeth II. The Anglo-Saxon king defeated the last of the Viking invaders and consolidated Britain, ruling from 925-939 AD.

What three changes gave Parliament more power in England?

Three changes that gave Parliament more power in England were their mutual government ruling with the monarchy, the constitutional monarchy, and the Bill of Rights that protected the rights of the people of the Parliament.

When did the monarchy lose power in England?


In 1642, the conflict between the King and English Parliament reached its climax and the English Civil War began. The Civil War culminated in the execution of the king in 1649, the overthrow of the English monarchy, and the establishment of the Commonwealth of England.

What document made clear the limits on royal power?

Magna Carta was issued in June 1215 and was the first document to put into writing the principle that the king and his government was not above the law. It sought to prevent the king from exploiting his power, and placed limits of royal authority by establishing law as a power in itself.

When did England change from monarchy to democracy?

In 1648 Charles allied with the Scots against Parliament and the army in the second Civil War. He was defeated and executed in 1649. England then became a republic, with no monarch.

Who was the last British monarch with power?

George VI became King unexpectedly following the abdication of his brother, King Edward VIII, in December 1936. A conscientious and dedicated man, he worked hard to adapt to the role into which he was suddenly thrown. Reserved by nature, and of deep religious belief, he was helped in his work by his wife.

Why does the British monarchy still exist?

The Sovereign acts as a focus for national identity, unity and pride; gives a sense of stability and continuity; officially recognises success and excellence; and supports the ideal of voluntary service. In all these roles The Sovereign is supported by members of their immediate family.

What is the oldest democracy on earth?

San Marino claims to be the oldest constitutional republic in the world, founded on 3 September 301, by Marinus of Rab, a Christian stonemason fleeing the religious persecution of Roman Emperor Diocletian.

In which country there is no democracy?

Kuwait – Political parties are banned; candidates must be independent. Oman – Political parties are banned. Qatar – Political parties are banned. Saudi Arabia – Political parties are banned.

What was the first country?

Oldest Countries 2022

Country Age Rank Sovereignty Acquired
Iran 1 3200 BC
Egypt 2 3100 BC
Vietnam 3 2879 BC
Armenia 4 2492 BC

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